Science

Top 10 Most Common Terpenes

10 Naturally Occurring Terpenes Found In Cannabis

cannabis terpenes

With edible marijuana being consumed like candy it’s no surprise that the buzz around terpenes has generated a lot of interest in the cannabis community. Those with a green thumb, or with any knowledge of growing will probably tell you that terpenes are the essential oils found in a plant that is responsible for aromatics and flavor and can be extracted and infused into CBD oils and the best marijuana edibles. With more and more states legalizing marijuana, the production of edibles has increased drastically over the years and the demand for terpenes are at an all-time high (literally). So that begs the question, what exactly is a terpene?

Weed smokers around the nation are becoming more familiar with this household term that is gaining popularity like CBD oils have recently. With so much talk about terpenes, I think we should understand why they play such an important role in flowers and edibles. Terpenes are what give the plant you are smoking its unique smell, and those edibles you are buying the unique “weed flavor” that some of them have. Other edibles are being infused with terpenes from other plants to add fruity flavors and unique combinations of flavors to these products.

 

As more people are getting into the edible business there is a higher demand for terpenes as producers are trying to innovate more flavor combinations with unique products as the market expands. Marijuana growers are also seemingly more interested in terpenes, in an industry that once focused purely on THC content, more and more growers are finding that flavor is becoming equally important in a market full of cannabis enthusiasts and aficionados. Because of this, growers are working hard to improve the flavor profiles of their plants by maximizing the levels of terpenes in the crops they are growing.  

There are also medical benefits associated with terpenes that we are just starting to really understand. When one strain of cannabis provides medical treatment and another is not as effective, we can look to the terpene profiles of the strains to gain a better understanding of the role they play when consumed for medicinal purposes. With hundreds, if not thousands, of cannabis terpenes, the possibilities are almost limitless. These are the top 10 most common terpenes found in the cannabis plant.

Top Organic Terpenes

terpene flavor profile

  • Limonene

The Limonene terpene is one of the most common terpenes being used today. It can be found in foods, drugs, cosmetics, and detergents. This popular terpene is very aromatic and is being produced at high levels and can be found in many cannabis strains. This herbal compound’s medicinal values are actively being researched. Limonene terpenes offer a unique taste and can enhance the experience in flower, edibles, and full spectrum CBD oils.

  • Pinene

Another one of the more popular terpenes is Pinene. It has a very unique flavor profile, is common in cannabis, and carries a unique pine-scented bouquet. This terpene can also be found naturally occurring in pine needles, dill weed, basil leaves, the rosemary plant, and parsley.  The two types of Pinene are alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, however, alpha-pinene is most prevalent terpene found in the cannabis plant. Alpha-pinene also happens to be the most naturally occurring terpene found in natural plantation around the globe.

  • Myrcene

Myrcene is another popular terpene found in cannabis and we are fans of the aromatic terpene. Myrcene can be found in many of the strains being produced around the world. It’s unique flavor profile and aromatics make it a desired terpene among growers. It has a very earthy aromatic to it that has hints of musk that are similar to clove. There are also hints of spice and fruity elements that have been related to grapes.

  • Linalool

The Linalool terpene is not necessarily specific to cannabis strains. It has an aromatic characteristic that resembles lavender with a hint of spiciness. The terpene is common and can be found in over 200 types of plants. The terpene is naturally occurring enough in plants that consumers will ingest over two grams of linalool each year through the foods they consume.

  • Delta-3-Carene

The Delta 3 carene terpene is a cannabis terpene that carries a sweet, earthy aroma with undertones of pine similar to Pinene. Delta 3 carene can also be found in rosemary, basil leaves, bell peppers, cedar, and turpentine. The Delta 3 carene terpene is also commonly found in cosmetics, and perfumes, and has is known to be a naturally occurring antihistamine. It is said that this terpene may be the culprit for cotton mouth and the red eyes often associated with cannabis use. Delta 3 carene may also be a reliable source for combating fibromyalgia, osteoporosis, and arthritis. Delta 3 carene may also promote memory retention and increase mental awareness.

  • Eucalyptol

Eucalyptol is another terpene frequently found in cannabis. This terpene has a cooling scent that is often found in eucalyptus, rosemary, bay leaves, mint, mugwort, tea, basil leaf, sage, and certain strains of cannabis. Eucalyptol, like Delta 3 Carene, can also be found in cosmetics, lotions, essential oils, balms, and body butter.  

  • Beta-Caryophyllene

Beta-caryophyllene can be found in cannabis among other plants. This terpene profile is naturally occurring in basil, oregano, rosemary, copaiba, clove, black caraway, lavender, and cinnamon. The terpene is known to have anti-inflammatory benefits and through controlled studies, researchers are beginning to understand the benefits these terpenes can have on our health.

  • Humulene

The Humulene terpene is naturally occurring in basil, clove, hops, and cannabis sativa. It has aromatic hints of earthy, woody, and spicy herbal notes you might be familiar with from cannabis use. Even though cannabis is commonly associated with the stimulation of one’s appetite, the humulene terpene has been found to suppress hunger.

  • Borneol

Borneol a popular perfume making terpenes that can be found in over the counter products. Borneol has a minty, camphor-like aromatic note. Borneol can be found occurring naturally in camphor, ginger, thyme, rosemary, sage, marjoram, and mugwort. It’s also been noted that Borneol has a medicinal value associated with fever reduction.

  • Terpineol

Terpineol is a monoterpene alcohol, it’s made up of 4 different isomers (alpha, beta, gamma, and terpineol), alpha-terpineol is the most prominent one. Terpineol has been isolated from natural oils such as pine, petitgrain, and cajuput. Although naturally occurring, it is commonly manufactured from the more-readily available alpha-pinene terpenoid. It is a colorless liquid with a pleasant aroma and a sweet, lime flavor. With its naturally enjoyable smell, it’s been used to enhance the fragrance of perfumes and cosmetics. Terpineol is also being used in CBD oil blends and full spectrum products.

more than 200 terpenes in cannabis The most common terpene found in the cannabis plant is myrcene. Beta-Caryophyllene, humulene, and pinene terpenes have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and are commonly infused into CBD oils. With all the potential health benefits of full spectrum extracts, it’s no wonder consumers are preferring them over isolates. In addition to the cannabinoids, the terpenes found in these full spectrum extracts can provide aromatic results that keep consumers coming back for more. For those seeking terpene infused extracts, let the aroma of the product guide you to the most terpene rich products on the market.

If you are in looking for quality terpenes for your edible products or line of CBD oils, we recommend that you check out some of the internet’s best-kept secrets, quality, organic terpene blends are being produced and sold to vendors across the country looking to infuse their edibles and CBD products with the best flavor profiles on the market. Companies like Xtra Laboratories are leading the way with cannabis and fruit-flavored terpene blends.

What Are Fluorescent Dyes

What Are Fluorescent Dyes?

excitation moleculeWe had an interesting request to blog about the Fluorescent Dyes that are out on the market. Before we do that though, let’s get you up to speed on Fluorescent Dyes. One of our content writers studied chemistry in college and had this to say.

Most biological research laboratories depend on Fluorescent Dyes during standard tests that require the use of fluorescent molecules. The dyes are becoming more widely used as more people researching are finding just how versatile these fluorescent dyes can be in addition to their sensitivity levels and quantitative capabilities. These fluorescent probes have many uses in the lab, they can detect protein location and activation, and have the ability to identify complex protein formations, in addition to conformational changes and monitor advanced biological processes in vivo.

The real benefit of these fluorescent molecules (fluorophores/fluors) in the laboratory is that they have a unique reaction to light that passes through them when compared to other molecules. As the light passes through, it actually gets absorbed by an electron of a fluorescent particle. This then generates energy in the electron and propels it to an exited state. While this moment of excitation is happening, there is energy that begins to dissipate from a molecular collision and/or gets transferred to a proximal molecule, and the energy that remains then gets emitted as a photon which intern brings the electron back to a grounded state. Typically, the emitted photon will carry less energy, as a result it usually has a longer wavelength than the photon that experienced excitation, this allows the emitted fluorescence to be distinguished from the excitation light. The excitation produces an emission from the fluorophore that is cyclical, and until the the fluorophore is damaged beyond use, researchers can continue to excite the fluors until it reaches that stage. Because of this, the fluors can emit numerous photons repeatedly during this cycle of excitation, as a result the emissions and fluorescent molecules can continue to be used for a vast range of research.

Fluorophores can thus emit numerous photons through this cycle of excitation and emission and fluorescent molecules are therefore used for a broad range of research applications. You can learn in detail how fluorescent molecules work.

 

 

 

Fluorescent Dyes

diagram of Alexa Fluor 488

• Alexa Fluor 488 Dye

This dye is very bright, it is a fluorescent green dye that experiences excitation that is commonly suited to the 488 nm laser line. This dye is great for generating stable imaging and flow cytometry. It should also be noted that the Alexa Fluor 488 dye is pH-insensitive over a very wide molar range.

These probes that contain high fluorescence in addition to high photo stability are often times better for detecting a low-abundance of biological micro structures that illuminate with increased sensitivity. It’s common for Alexa Fluor 488 dye molecules to become attached to a protein molecule when exposed at high molar ratios without experiencing significant self-quenching. This can enable brighter conjugates, and and provide a more detailed detection.

• Cyanine Dyes

Cyanine dyes are specific molecules that contain a polymethine bridge between two unique nitrogen atoms that have a delocalized charge. As the result of this structure, cyanine dyes are known to have incredibly high extinction coefficients. There are different substituents that allow for the control of these properties, those most commonly being absorbance wavelength, photo stability, and fluoros.

• IR Fluors
“Bright, photostable and hydrophilic near-IR dye that is spectrally similar to Alexa Fluor® 750 and Cy7® Dye.

Bright and hydrophilic, far-red-fluorescent dye excited by the 633 nm or 647 nm laser lines.”

• MB Dyes

M.B. Dyes Chemical & Silk Ind. (Pvt.) Ltd. is a manufacturer of diversified auxiliary chemicals and dyes/pigments for Textile, Leather and Paint Industries. We also deal with many raw materiel used in these industries. We produced gamut of these chemicals for customer convenience to lessen their worries regarding raw material regular supply from a single source. Our manufacturing unit is located in Gadoon Amazai Industrial Estate Swabi NWFP and producing more than 110 products.

• Classic Fluorescent Dyes

What’s a fluorescent probe? It is a fluorophore that has been designed to localize in an isolated region of a biological specimen or to react to a specified stimulus. The Fluroprobes are fluorescent and give researchers the ability to identify specific components of complex bio-molecular structures that include living cells. The dyes have also been used regularly to modify things like amino acids, peptides, proteins, carbs, and other bio-molecules.

About Fluorophore
From Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorophore

“A fluorophore (or fluorochrome, similarly to a chromophore) is a fluorescent chemical compound that can re-emit light upon light excitation. Fluorophores typically contain several combined aromatic groups, or planar or cyclic molecules with several π bonds.

Fluorophores are sometimes used alone, as a tracer in fluids, as a dye for staining of certain structures, as a substrate of enzymes, or as a probe or indicator (when its fluorescence is affected by environmental aspects such as polarity or ions). More generally they are covalently bonded to a macromolecule, serving as a marker (or dye, or tag, or reporter) for affine or bioactive reagents (antibodies, peptides, nucleic acids). Fluorophores are notably used to stain tissues, cells, or materials in a variety of analytical methods, i.e., fluorescent imaging and spectroscopy.

Fluorescein, by its amine reactive isothiocyanate derivative FITC, has been one of the most popular fluorophores. From antibody labeling, the applications have spread to nucleic acids thanks to (FAM (Carboxyfluorescein), TET,…). Other historically common fluorophores are derivatives of rhodamine (TRITC), coumarin, and cyanine. Newer generations of fluorophores, many of which are proprietary, often perform better, being more photostable, brighter, and/or less pH-sensitive than traditional dyes with comparable excitation and emission.”